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Terms and Definitions
Definitions of the most commonly used terminology


- Alphabetic listing of terms
- Definitions

Alphabetical listing. Click on each term for a definition:

ADI - Artificial Insemination by DonorAnejaculationAntegrade ejaculationAzoospermia (prim., sec.)AsthenozoospermiaCap inseminationCryopreservationCryptozoospermiaDI - donor inseminatio EjaculationHeterologous inseminationHomologous inseminationHypospermiaICSI - intracytoplasmic sperm injectionInseminationIUI - intrauterine inseminationIVF - in vitro fertilisationKallman syndromsKlinefelter's syndrome 47 XXYMucoviscidosisMumps orchitisNecrozoospermiaOAT - oligoasthenoteratozoospermiaParvisemiaPolyspermiaRefertilisationRetrograde ejaculationTESE - testicular sperm extractionTurner syndromeTesticular atrophyTesticular traumaUllrich-Turner syndromeVas deferens aplasia (CBAVD)Vasectomy

Definitions

ADI - Artificial Insemination by Donor
Engl.: Artificial Insemination by Donor, German.: donogene Insemination

Anejaculation
Orgasm without the discharge of semen, to be distinguished from retrograde ejaculation (see definition) e.g. after prostate surgery or after spinal cord injuries

Anorgasm
Inability to have an orgasm.
Cause: psychosexual in most cases, diabetes

Antegrade ejaculation
Discharge of semen in the typical direction (antegrade = forwards), see also retrograde ejaculation

Azoospermia (prim., sec.)
Absence of sperm cells in the semen. Primary = always,
secondary = after previously known sperm production

Asthenozoospermia
Too small a proportion of sperm cells with normal motility in the ejaculate

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Cap inseminationn
Simple form of insemination in which non-prepared sperm cells are placed directly in the cervix using a plastic cervical cap.

Cryopreservationg
Freeze preservation, freezing of cells or tissues (kryo = Greek for cold))

Cryptozoospermia
The presence of hardly any viable sperm in the ejaculate

Donor Insemination (DI)
Implantation of sperm from a donor, also known as ADI (artificial donor insemination), heterologous insemination, AID (artificial insemination by donor)

Ejaculation
The discharge of semen

Heterolous insemination
Commonly used but not medically correct name for donor insemination. Heterologous insemination actually means that sperm cells from another species are used!

Homologous insemination
Common term used for insemination using the husband's or partner's sperm. The latter is occasionally termed "quasi-homologous".

Hypospermia
Reduced amount of ejaculate

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ICSI - Intracytoplasmic sperm injection
Form of artificial insemination in which one sperm cell is injected into each egg cell in a Petri dish.

Insemination
The most simple form of artificial fertilisation, in which sperm cells (in most cases after special preparation in the laboratory) are injected via a catheter, usually directly into the cervix (= neck of the womb) or the womb. See also IUI.

IUI - intrauterine insemination
Sperm cells (in most cases after special preparation) are injected using a catheter directly into the uterine cavity.

IVF - in vitro fertilisation
Form of artificial insemination in which the egg is placed in a Petri dish and approximately 100,000 sperm cells with good motility are added

Kallman Syndrome
Also known as hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, is a congenital disorder of the pituitary gland, which does not secrete enough GnRH hormone, as a result of which the testicles/ovaries fail to develop properly.
Incidence of the disorder in men: 1: 8,000
Incidence of the disorder in women: 1: 40,000

Klinefelter's syndrome
Syndrome resulting from a chromosomal disorder. Instead of the normal male chromosome set (46 XY), most cells in the body contain an extra X chromosome (47 XXY).
Common signs and symptoms: absent or delayed puberty, lack of beard growth, excessive tallness, infertility.
Incidence in Germany: 1: 80,000.

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Mucoviscidosis
The most common hereditary metabolic disorder, in which disruption of a cell membrane protein (CTFR protein) results in disruption of various glandular functions.
Most commonly affected areas: Lungs, pancreas, intestine, liver, male sex organs (vas deferens aplasia - see definition)..
Incidence: 1: 2,500.

Mumps orchitis
Inflammation of the testicles as a direct result of the childhood illness mumps

Necrozoospermia
Presence of only dead sperm cells in the ejaculate

OAT - oligoasthenoteratozoospermia
Summary of the results from a sperm evaluation (oligo = too little, meaning too low a concentration per ml; astheno = too slow; terato = too small a proportion of normally formed sperm cells)

Parvisemia (also hypospermia)
Reduced amount of ejaculate

Polyspermia
Marked increase in sperm density in the ejaculate to over 250 million/ml

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Refertilisation
Intervention for the purpose of reversing a vasectomy or (female) sterilisation.

Retrograde ejaculation
Discharge of semen into the bladder (retrograde = backwards), mostly due to nerve damage after pelvic surgeries, and in patients with diabetes, alcoholism, slipped discs or multiple sclerosis

TESE - testicular sperm extraction
Testicular sperm extraction, German: Testikuläre Extraktion von Spermien;
If there are no sperm cells found in the ejaculate, they can often be extracted directly from the testicles by surgery

Testicular atrophy
Due to factors such as trauma, inflammation or anabolic steroid abuse, the testicles may shrink. The consequences of this may include infertility.

Testicular trauma
Injury to the testicle

Turner syndrome
Full name: Ullrich-Turner Syndrome
Hereditary disorder occurring only in women. Instead of the normal female set of chromosomes (46 XX) there are only 45 chromosomes due to the absence of an X chromosome.
Signs and symptoms: Delayed puberty, limited growth, infertility.
Incidence: 1: 2,500

Ullrich-Turner syndrome
see Turner syndrome

Vas deferens aplasiae
(CBAVD = congenital bilateral aplasia of vas deferens). In conjunction with mucoviszidosis (see definition), this may result in blockage of the passages carrying the semen.
Incidence: 5 % of men suffering from infertility

Vasectomy
Male sterilisation, in which the vas deferens on both sides is cauterised, tied off or dissected.

 

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